The polarization direction
The direction of the electric field of a polarized electromagnetic wave is called the polarization direction.
The polarization surface
The plane formed by the polarization direction and the propagation direction of the polarized electromagnetic wave is called the polarization plane.
The polarization of radio waves, often with the earth as the standard surface. The polarization wave whose polarization surface is parallel to the earth normal plane (vertical plane) is called the vertical polarization wave.
The polarization wave which is perpendicular to the normal surface of the earth is called horizontal polarization wave.
The plane of polarization
If the polarization direction of the electromagnetic wave remains in a fixed direction, it is called plane polarization, also known as linear polarization.
When the Angle between the polarization plane and the geodetic normal plane of radio waves changes from 0 to 360° periodically, that is, the electric field size is unchanged, the direction changes with time, and the trajectory of the end of the electric field vector is projected as a circle on the plane perpendicular to the propagation direction, it is called circular polarization.
The elliptical polarized
If the Angle between the radio wave polarization plane and the geodetic normal plane changes periodically from 0 to 2π, and the trajectory of the end of the electric field vector is projected as an ellipse on the plane perpendicular to the propagation direction, it is called elliptic polarization.
Long wave antenna, medium wave antenna
It is a general term for transmitting or receiving antennas working in long and medium wave bands. Long and medium waves propagate as ground waves and sky waves, which are continuously reflected between the ionosphere and the earth.
The transmitting or receiving antennas operating in the short wave band are collectively called short wave antennas. Short wave is mainly transmitted by the sky wave reflected by the ionosphere and is one of the important means of modern long distance radio communication.
Ultrashort wave antenna
The transmitting and receiving antennas operating in the ultrashort wave band are called ultrashort wave antennas. Ultrashort waves travel mainly by space waves.
The transmitting or receiving antennas working in the wave bands of meter wave, decimeter wave, centimeter wave and millimeter wave are collectively referred to as microwave antennas. Microwave mainly depends on space wave propagation, in order to increase the communication distance, the antenna is set up higher.
Directional antenna is a kind of antenna that transmits and receives electromagnetic waves in one or several specific directions especially strongly, while transmits and receives electromagnetic waves in other directions is zero or very small.
Non directional antenna
The antenna that radiates or receives electromagnetic wave uniformly in all directions is called non-directional antenna, such as whip antenna used in small communication machine, etc.
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